Robert E. Gross, MD, PhD

 Robert Gross

Robert E. Gross, MD, PhD
Professor, Departments of Neurosurgery, Neurology, Biomedical Engineering, and Neuroscience
Director, Functional, Stereotactic & Epilepsy Surgery Division
Director and Co-Founder, Emory Neuromodulation and Technology Innovation Center
Director, Translational Neuroengineering Laboratory

The Emory Clinic, Building B, 2nd floor
1365-B Clifton Rd., NE, Ste. 2200
Atlanta, GA 30322

To make an appointment: 404-778-5770

Robert E. Gross earned his MD and PhD from Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, where he also completed his neurosurgical residency. Dr. Gross is fellowship-trained in functional and stereotactic neurosurgery (University of Toronto and The Toronto Hospital) and epilepsy surgery (Yale University and Yale/New Haven Hospital). In 2001, Dr. Gross joined the faculty of Emory University, where he currently serves as Associate Professor in the Departments of Neurosurgery and Neurology./p>

Dr. Gross is active in organized neurosurgery, holding a variety of positions in national and insitutional neurological societies.

In July of 2007, Dr. Gross, along with Steve M. Potter, Ph.D. of the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, was the recipient of a prestigious grant from The Epilepsy Research Foundation (ERF) for translational research funding awards supporting innovative epilepsy products. The grant supports the development of a novel electrical stimulation approach that directly controls the activity of the brain to attain a more stable state from which seizures will not arise.

Dr. Gross’s research interests include: restorative approaches (including cell and gene therapy) for Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders; physiology of movement disorders (Parkinson's disease, tremor, dystonia); novel surgical techniques for epilepsy (e.g. deep brain stimulation, cell and gene therapy). In particular, he has been elucidating the role of axon guidance molecules in the development and reconstruction of the nigrostriatal pathway, which degenerates in P.D. This approach, which encompasses molecular and cellular engineering in combination with neurotransplantation, may be generally useful in reconstructive approaches for many types of nervous system degeneration and injury.

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Areas of Clinical Interest:

  • ablative procedures
  • cell therapy
  • deep brain stimulation
  • dystonia
  • epilepsy
  • epilepsy surgery
  • gene therapy
  • neurodegenerative disorders
  • Parkinson's disease
  • physiology of movement disorders
  • restorative approaches
  • transplantation
  • tremor

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Research Articles (2000-Present)

Lombardi WJ, Gross RE, Trepanier LL, Lang AE, Lozano AM and Saint-Cyr JA.  Relationship of lesion location to cognitive outcome following microelectrode-guided pallidotomy for Parkinson’s Disease:  Support for the existence of cognitive circuits in the human pallidum.  Brain, 123, 746-768, 2000.

Lombardi WJ, Woolsten D, Roberts JW and Gross RE. Cognitive deficits in patients with essential tremor.  Neurology, 57, 785-90, 2001.

Okun MS, Green J, Saben R, Gross R, Foote KD, Vitek JL.  Mood changes with deep brain stimulation of STN and Gpi: results of a pilot study.  Journal of Neurol, Neurosurg and Psychiatry, 74, 1584-1586, 2003.

Gross RE, Jones EG, Dostrovsky JO, Bergeron C, Lang AE, Lozano AM. Histological Analysis of the Location of Effective Thalamic Stimulation for Tremor: A Case Study. Journal of Neurosurgery, 100, 547-552, 2004.

Cicchetti F, Lapointe N, Roberge-Tremlay A, Saint-Pierre M, Jimenez L, Ficke BW, Gross RE. Systemic exposure to paraquat and maneb models early in Parkinson’s Disease in young adult rats. Neurobiology of Disease, 20:360-71, 2005.

Saint-Pierre M, Tremblay M-E, Sik A, Gross R.E., Cicchetti F. Temporal effects of paraquat/maneb on microglial activation and dopamine neuronal loss in older rats. Journal of Neurochemistry, 98:760-72, 2006. (Co-senior author)

Cicchetti F, Gross RE, Bulte J, Owen M, Chen I, Sainte-Pierre M, Wang X, Yu M, Brownell A-L. Non-invasive high resolution in vivo monitoring of stem cell migration. Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging, 2:130-138, 2007.

Khan, MF, Mewes K, Gross RE, Skrinjar O. Assessment of brain shift related to deep brain stimulation surgery. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, 86:44-53, 2008.

Orr AG, Orr AL, Li XJ, Gross RE, Traynelis SF. Adenosine A(2A) receptor mediates microglial process retraction. Nature Neuroscience, 12:872-8, 2009.

Rolston JD, Gross RE, Potter SM. A low-cost multielectrode system for data acquisition enabling real-time closed-loop processing with rapid recovery from stimulation artifacts. Frontiers in Neuroengineering, 2009;2:12. (Co-senior author)

Chhabra V, Sung E, Mewes K, Bakay RAE, Abosch A, Gross RE. Safety of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Deep Brain Stimulator Systems: A Serial MRI and Clinical Retrospective Study, Journal of Neurosurgery 2009: Aug 14 [ePub ahead of print].

McConnell GC, Rees HD, Levey AI, Gutekunst C-A, Gross RE, Bellamkonda RV. Implanted neural electrodes cause chronic, local inflammation that is correlated with local neurodegeneration. J Neural Engineering 2009;6 [Epub ahead of print].

Miller PM, Gross RE. Wire tethering or “bowstringing” as a long-term hardware related complication of deep brain stimulation. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, 87(6):353-359.

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Published Abstracts

Gross RE, Hunt J, Hirayama C.  The expression of axonal guidance molecules in the substantia nigra and striatum.  American Soc. for Neural Transplantation and Repair.  Exp. Neurol., Vol. 7, p. 54, 2000.

Gross RE, Lonser RR, Maynard E, Roberts JW, Lombardi WJ.  Neurophysiological characterization of the globus pallidus in childhood bilateral ballism:  A case study.  Movement Disorders, 15 (suppl.) 3, 55, 2000.

Gross RE.  Surgical targeting of the Vim nucleus for deep brain stimulation:  Comparison of formulaic and microelectrode-guided techniques.  Movement Disorders, 15 (suppl.) 3, 56, 2000.

Lombardi WJ, Gross RE, Trepanier L, Lang AE, Saint-Cyr JA, Lozano AM.  Dissociation of cognitive and motor frontal-subcortical circuits in the human.  Movement Disorders, 15 (suppl.) 3, 60, 2000.

Gross RE, Jones EG, Dostrovsky JO, Bergeron C, Lang AE, Lozano AM.  Histological localization of the effective site of thalamic deep brain stimulation for tremor.  Movement Disorders, 15 (suppl.) 3, 63, 2000.

Lombardi WJ, Roberts JW, Gross RE.  Cognitive deficits in patients with essential tremor.  Movement Disorders, 15 (suppl.) 3, 104, 2000.

Gross RE, Ren Z, Jimenez, L, Jackson, E. Prospects for Reconstructing the Nigrostriatal Pathway : Chemorepellant Signaling in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons.  Congress of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting, San Francisco, October, 2004

Ren R, Jimenez L, Jackson EH, Wainer B, Gross RE. Expression of competent semaphoring receptors in the developing and adult nigrostriatal pathway. Meeting of the American Society of Neural Transplantation and Repair, Exp. Neuro., 187,217, 2004.

Mei Q, Gross RE. The role of small Rho GTPases in neurite outgrowth and migration of neural stem cells.  Meeting of the American Society for Neural Transplantation and Repair, Exp. Neuro., 187, 215, 2004.

Mei Q, Gutekunst C, Torre E, Jackson L, Gross RE. Enhancement of neurite outgrowth form primary and stem-cell derived neurons by lentiviral-vector mediaed modulation of Rho GTPases, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., November 2005.

Gutenkunst C, Torre E, Ren Z, Lu E, Jackson, EH, Gross RE. Semaphorin 3A and 3F as guiding cues for the development of the nigrostriatal pathways. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., November 2005.

Gross RE, Ren Z, Gutekunst C, Jackson E, Wainer BH. The expression of neuropilins, plexins and flk-1 in the adult nigrostriatal pathway. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., November 2005.

Gross RE, Mei Q, Gutenkunst CA, Torre E. A Lentiviral vector expressing C3 transferase increases axon outgrowth in vitro and in vivo: A gene therapy for neural regeneration and transplantation, American Society for Neural Therapy and Repair, May 2006. Exp. Neurol

Gross RE, Mei Q, Gutenkunst CA, Torre E. Gene Therapy for Neural Regeneration and Transplantation: A Lentiviral Vector Expressing C3 Transferase Increases Axon Outgrowth In Vitro and In Vivo. American Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery Biennial Meeting, Cleveland, OH, June, 2006.

Gross RE, Bate BG, Ahmadian A, Bate SL, Mewes K. Factors effecting accuracy of frame-based and frameless stereotactic systems: a laboratory study. American Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery Biennial Meeting, Cleveland, OH, June, 2006

Torre E, Gutekunst CN, Gross RE. Localized protein synthesis in axons of the Central Nervous System. Protocols for genomic and proteomic analysis of the axonal compartment. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr, Atlanta, GA, October, 2006.

Gutekunst CN, Mercer KB, Szlam S, Manning E, Gernert KM, Walthall WW, Gross RE, Benian GM. A C. elegans homolog of Huntington-associated protein 1 and milton is expressed in chemosensory neurons and in a number of other somatic cell types. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr, Atlanta, GA, October, 2006.

Mewes K, Gross RE, Sung E, Vitek JL, Wichmann T, DeLong MR. Simple indirect targeting is accurate for microelectrode mapping during DBS surgery. Mov. Disorder Society Annual Meeting, Kyoto, Japan. Movement Disorders, November, 2006

Gross RE, Mewes K, Sung E, Holder C, Mao H, Abosch A, Vitek JL, DeLong, MR. Safety of MR imaging of DBS electrodes in a large series of patients. Mov. Disorder Society Annual Meeting, Kyoto, Japan. Movement Disorders, November, 2006.

Gross RE, Sung EK, LaBorde D, Johnson M, Mewes K. Accuracy and Precision of Frameless Image-guided Implantation of Depth Electrodes for Intracranial Monitoring, American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, Epilepsia, December, 2006.

Gross RE, Gutekunst, C-AN, Torre ER. Semaphorin 3F: a repulsive signal guiding the mesencephalic dopaminergic axon. Expression of Sema3A, Sema3F and their receptors in the developing dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway and their chemorepulsive effects on dopaminergic axons. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., San Diego, November, 2007.

Torre ER, Gutekunst, C-A, Gross RE. Semaphorin 3A and netrin effects on growth of mesencephalic dopaminergic axons: Role of PKA and cyclic AMP, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., San Diego, CA, November, 2007.

Chhabra VS, Sung E, Mewes K, Gross RE. The safety of MRI after DBS placement: A single center retrospective analysis. American Association of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, J. Neurosurg., April, 2008.

Gross RE, Bakay RAE, Eisner W, Hauser R, Hong W, Reichmann H, Reissig E, Steiner H, Watts RL, Spheramine Study Group. The STEPS Trial: Design of a Phase 2 Study to Evaluate Spheramine®, a Novel Cell-Based Therapy Administered by Stereotactic Implantation Into the Striata of Patients With Parkinson’s Disease (PD). American Association of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, J. Neurosurg., April, 2008.

Gross RE, Torre E, Gutekunst. The role of Sema3A and 3F as guidance cues in the development of the mesotelencephalic DA pathway. American Society for Neural Transplantation and Repair Annual Meeting, Clearwater Beach, FL, Cell Transplantation, May, 2008.

Gross RE, Torre E, Gutekunst C-A. Mediators Of Inhibitory Effects Of The CNS On Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Axons: Relevance To Development And Regeneration. American Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Vancouver, BC, June, 2008.

Gross RE, Mewes, K, DeLong MR. STN DBS entrains GPi activity during intraoperative microelectrode recording in a patient with Parkinson’s disease. American Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Vancouver, BC, June, 2008.

Gross RE, Juncos J, DeLong MR. DBS in two patients with Tourette Syndrome (TS): Two year results using two targets. American Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Vancouver, BC, June, 2008.

Pastrena E, Mewes K, Gross RE. Intraoperative bias, accuracy and precision of composite microelectrode recording systems: Comparison of FHC and Axon Instrument systems on the CRW frame. Congress of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL. Neurosurgery, October, 2008.

Holtzheimer P,  Craddock RC, Gutman DA, Kelley M, Barrocas A, Craighead M, Gross RE, Mayberg HS. Refining the neural circuitry of treatment-resistant depression: preliminary results from a study of subcallosal cingulate white matter deep brain stimulation. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., Washington D.C., November, 2008.

Gutekunst CN, Stewart EN, Torre ER, Gross RE. Plexin A4 expression in the developing brain and spinal cord. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., Washington D.C., November, 2008.

Robinson AA, LaRoche S, Gross RE, Stringer A, Braaten A, Wuu J, Lobel D, Johnson M.  Intracranial Monitoring for refractory MTLE: Predictors of outcome, American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, Epilepsia, Suppl., December, 2008.

Braaten A, Stringer A, Prosje M, Gess J, LaRoche S, Gross RE. The Discriminant and Convergent Validity of the Intracarotid Amobarbital Procedure: A Multitrait - Multimethod Analysis American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, Epilepsia, Suppl., December, 2008.

Owens TR, Gross RE. Is half a hippocampus better than all or none? Practice pattern survey on the extent of hippocampal resection as it relates to seizure freedom and memory loss in the treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, Epilepsia, Suppl., December, 2008.

Gross RE, Loring DW, Langfitt JT, Ojemann GA, Olivier A, Helmstaedter C. Surgical Controversies in the Treatment of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: How to Get There and What to Do When You Get There, Annual Meeting of the American Epilepsy Society, Seattle, WA. Epilepsia Suppl., December, 2008.

Paul E. Holtzheimer, R. Cameron Craddock, Callie McGrath, Megan Filkowski, Robert Gross, Boadie W. Dunlop, W. Edward Craighead, Helen S. Mayberg. Medial Prefrontal-Striatal Functional Connectivity Distinguishes Treatment-Resistant From Treatment-Responsive Depressed Patients, ACNP meeting, 2010.

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Book Chapters

House P and Gross RE.  Computer-assisted image-guided stereotaxis in movement disorder surgery.  In:  Schulder M. Handbook of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2002.

Gross RE. Neural Stem Cell Therapy. In: Pahwa, R, Lyons K, Koller, W. Therapy of Parkinson’s Disease, Marcel Dekker, 2004.

DiLorenzo DJ and Gross RE. History and overview of neural engineering. In: Bronzino, JD, Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2006, pp. 29-1 – 29-19.

Johnson MM and Gross RE. Stereotactic Procedures. In: Lubin MF, Medical Management of the Surgical Patient, 4th ed. Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 682 – 684.

Gross RE.  Anesthesia for movement disorders surgery, In: Bakay, RAE. Surgery for movement disorders- the essentials. Thieme, in press, 2008.

Gross RE, Lozano AM. Stereotactic Pallidotomy and Thalamotomy. In: Factor, S, Weiner, W. Parkinson’s Disease: Diagnosis and Clinical Management, Second Edition, Demos Medical Publishing, 2007.

DiLorenzo, DJ and Gross RE. History and overview of neural engineering. In: DiLorenzo D. Textbook of Neuroengineering, 2007.

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Invited Review Articles and Editorial Commentaries

Gross RE, Lozano AM. Advances in neurostimulation for movement disorders.  Neurological Research, 22, 247-258, 2000.

Lang AE, Duff J, Saint-Cyr JA, Trepanier L, Gross RE, Lombardi WJ, Montgomery E, Hutchinson W, Lozano AM.  Posteroventral medial pallidotomy in Parkinson’s Disease.  Journal of Neurology, 246:  S28-S41, 1999.

Gross RE. Deep brain stimulation in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disease.  Expert Rev. Neurotherapeutics, 4(3),465-478, 2004.

Rezai AR, Kopell BH, Gross RE, Vitek JL, Sharan AD, Limousin P, Benabid AL. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease: Surgical Issues. Movement Disorders, 21:S197-218, 2006.

Gross RE, Krack P, Rodriguez-Oroz MC, Rezai AR, Benabid AL.  Electrophysiological Mapping for the Implantation of Deep Brain Stimulators for Parkinson’s Disease and Tremor.  Movement Disorders, 21:S259-S283, 2006.

Machado A, Rezai AR, Kopell BH, Gross RE, Sharan AD, Benabid AL. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Diseae: Surgical Technique and Perioperative Management. Movement Disorders, 21:S247-S258, 2006.

Gross, RE, Mei Q, Gutekunst C-A, Torre, E. The Pivotal Role of RhoA GTPase in the Molecular Signaling of Axon Growth Inhibition after CNS Injury and Targeted Therapeutic Strategies. Cell Transplantation, 16:245-262, 2007

Gross RE. What happened to posteroventral pallidotomy for Parkinson’s disease and tremor? Neurotherapeutics 2008;5(2):281-93.

Gross RE. The paradoxical role of DA after STN deep brain stimulation: downstream is upstream in a circuit diagram. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2008;86:188-190.

Gross RE. Activation of Subthalamic Nucleus Outflow by High-Frequency Stimulation Is Consistent with the Nigral Control of Epilepsy Model. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2008;86(4):216-218. Invited editorial comment.

Gross RE, Rolston JD. The clinical utility of methods to determine spatial extent and volume of tissue activated by deep brain stimulation. Clin. Neurophysiology 2008;119:1947-1950. Invited editorial commentary.

Cicchetti F Drouin-Ouellet  J, Gross RE. Environmental toxins and Parkinson’s disease: What have we learned from pesticide-induced animal models? Trends in Pharmacological Science. 30(9):475-83.

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