Paracentesis is a procedure during which fluid from the abdomen is removed through a needle. There are two reasons to take fluid out of the abdomen. One is to analyze it. The other is to relieve pressure.
Liquid that accumulates in the abdomen is called ascites. Ascites seeps out of organs for several reasons related either to disease in the organ or fluid pressures that are changing. Its many causes are listed below.
During paracentesis, special needles puncture the abdominal wall, with care taken not to hit internal organs. If fluid is needed only for analysis, just a bit is removed. If pressure relief is an additional goal, many quarts may be removed. Rapid removal of large amounts of fluid can cause blood pressure to drop suddenly. For this reason, the physician will often leave a tube in place so that fluid can be removed slowly, giving the circulation time to adapt.
A related procedure called colpocentesis removes ascitic fluid from the very bottom of the abdominal cavity through the back of the vagina. This is used mostly to diagnose female genital disorders like ectopic pregnancy that bleed or exude fluid into the peritoneal space.
Fluid is sent to the laboratory for testing, where cancer and blood cells can be detected, infections identified, and chemical analysis can direct further investigations.